Cahto Classified Vocabulary for Coast Trip


Marine Invertebrates
Sea Anemonetcan't'iing("one that has dung")
Abaloneyoo'tc'il'iing("one that is treated as beads")mollusk illustration
Clamch'antaahsaak("spoon among holes")
Small Clamsch'antaahsaaktc("little clam")
Gumboot Chitonwoleeching("wood scraper")
Keyhole Limpetch'siitcing lai'
Musselbaanchow("large edge")
Mussel shellbaanchow sits'("mussel's skin")
Mussel shell spoonbaanchow-saak("mussel spoon")
Octopust'aan'tghilyoos("the one that stretches leaves")?
Octopustoolhoi'("the one that lies as a rope in? water")?
Periwinklech'kaa'("something's seed")?
Small Shells (incl. olive & dentalia)ts'intc("little bone")
Sea Starch'laa'kwt'iing("one that has a hand")echinoderm illustrations
Sunflower Starch'laa'kwt'iin-taaloong'("soft sea star")
Sea Urchinkwoshkwt'iing("one that has thorns")
Barnaclegaat'choo'marine arthropod illustrations
Beach Louse/Isopodlaat-waaniishaantc("little one that watches over seaweed")
Crabteehkaatc'ee'("one that picks up with claws in water")
Freshwater Invertebrates
Crayfishteehkaatc'ee', taakaatc'ee'("one that picks up with claws underwater")freshwater invertebrate illustrations
Freshwater Musselsolnees("long-jawed one")
Stonefly larvachii-lhgish("forked tail")
Land Invertebrates
Ants (Aadiishtc)
Antaadiishtcant illustrations
Little Black Antch'ikolkantc
Red Antaadiishtciik("red ant")
Butterflies and Moths
Butterflysaak'tc("little spoon")?lepidoptera illustrations
coccoonch'ghoot'oo , ch'woot'oo
Ash Tree Caterpillar (edible)kaltcintc("worm")
Cutworm Caterpillarseekalhtcing("kind of axe")
Fly, House Flyban'tc("small fly")diptera illustrations
Large Fly, Tachinid Flyban'chow("large fly")
Stinging Insects
Bee, Wasp, Yellowjacket (general term)ts'isnaahymenoptera illustrations
Bumble Beets'isnaachow("big bee")
Cuckoo Bee, Green Flower Beets'isnaa-lhsowtc("little blue/green bee")
Wild Beesee-ts'isnaa("rock bee")
Hornett'aa'dilgaichow("big one with a whitish rear end")
Mud Dauber Waspban'lhtcinchow("big black fly")
Waspchaanees("one with a long abdomen")
Wasp (kind)chin-s'isnaatc("little tree bee")
Yellow Jacketts'isnaa-lh'its'("strong bee")
Other Insects
Beetlesilsiichowinsect illustration
Beetle (kind)nee'yoo'soostc("little narrow ground bead")
Dragonflynaach'ilkaachow("big one that carries something around in a container")
Crab Louseyaa'lhgai("white louse")
Head Louseyaa'
Other Arthropods
Scorpionteehkaatc'ee'tc("little crawfish")arthropod illustrations
Spider (web-building)yaalh'aang("one that keeps something up in the air")
Tarantuladjiikwon'chow("big fire heart")
Wood Tickch'yaa'chow("something's big louse")
Red WoodTickch'yaa'lhtciiktc("something's little red louse")
Other Land Invertebrates
Earthwormgooneeschow("big long worm")invertebrate illustrations
Slug, Snailnaadoos("one that crawls around")
Fishes (Toonai)
Marine Fishes
Smelt-like Fishes
Jacksmeltlhooyaash-teebaashsmelt-like fish illustrations
Sardinesi'iitc("little head")
Smelt, Surf Fishlhooyaash("small fish")
Smelt, Surf Fishbaanlhooyaash("edge/coast small fish")
Blue Rockfishtoonai-lhsow("blue fish")rockfish illustrations
Giant Kelpfishlhooyaash-ch'ooloo
Red Rockfish, Red Snappertoonai-lhtciik("red fish")
Sand Dablhoo'teelhgai("white flat fish")flatfish illustrations
Starry Floundertoonai-naa'-lhaa'haa'lh("one-eyed fish")
Other Marine Fishes
Cabezon, Bullheadch'sii'tcing("a kind of something's head")marine fish illustrations
Jack Mackerelsolnees("long-jawed")
"Long-tooth Fish" (possibly Wolf Eel)toonai-woo'nees("long-tooth fish")
Sharktoo-noonii("water bear")
Surf Perchlhoo'teel, lhoo'teelh("flat fish")
Freshwater Fishes
Trout and Suckers (Lhooyaash)
Troutlhooyaashlhgai, lhooyaashlhgaitc("(little) white sucker/trout")trout & sucker illustrations
Suckerlhooyaash-daabaanchow("sucker/trout with big lips")
Small Fishes
Bullhead Catfishtc'ooloo("freshwater sculpin")small freshwater fish illustrations
California Roach ?t'aan'lhtiktc("little dry leaf")
Sculpin, Bullheadtc'ooloo
Speckled Dacetoonai biinee'-swoltc("little fish with a round back")
Three-spined Sticklebackts'inkwoshtc("little bone-thorn")
Running Fishes
Lampreys (Toonai)
Lamprey; fish (in general)toonai("one that goes in water")lamprey illustrations
Night Eel (female lamprey)bee'liing
Day Eel (male lamprey)ts'eekee'neestc("little one with a long belly-button")
Lamprey Larva, Baby Lampreychiisghintc
Salmon and Steelheads (Lhook')
Black Salmon (dark King Salmon)gees-lhshing'("black king salmon")salmonid illustrations
King Salmongees
Silver Salmon, Coho Salmondaatcaahaal("mouth hook")
"Sore Tail" salmonchiilgaitc("little white tailed one")
"Spring Salmon"ch'an-lhook'etc("food-little salmon")
"Summer Salmon"chilhtciik("red stick"--named after the month)
Sturgeonlhook'chow, lhook'eechow("big fish")sturgeon illustration
Sturgeontoonai-bang("fish's mother")
Sturgeontoonaichow("big fish")
Frogs and Toads (Tc'aahaal)
Frogtc'aahaalfrog & toad illustrations
Toadtc'aahaal-gon'chow("big dry? frog")
Treefrog, Chorus Frogtc'aahaal-lhsowitc("little green/blue frog")
Salamanders and Newts
Salamanderdilaantcsalamander & newt illustrations
Alligator Lizardsaljiineeschow("big long lizard")lizard illustrations
Sagebrush Lizardsaljiitc("little lizard")
Skinktc'indin-naakaishtc("little one that goes around corpses/graves?")
Bullsnakech'see'chow("something's big rock?")?snake illustrations
Garter Snakenaalhshoot, naalhshoottc("(little) one that glides around")
Garter Snake (kind)biinee'-t'ohteeltcing("a kind of aquatic garter snake")
King Snake, "Milk Snake"t'aadilhkits("rear end patterned")
Racertc'kolhsaaschow("big one that whips")
Rattlesnaketl'ghish, lh'ghish
Water Snake, Aquatic Garter Snakebiinee'-t'ohteel("one that's back is beargrass") from light stripe
Turtlets'inteelh("wide bone")turtle illustration
Birds (T'aa'kwl'iing)
Sea Birds
Pelicantkaashchow("big one that carries things in a container")sea bird illustrations
Sandpipers, Shorebirdsbaansiits
Water Birds
Long-legged Water Birds
Black-Crowned Night Heronkwee'nteel, kwee'nteelh("its foot wide")long-legged water bird illustrations
Great Blue Heronseelhch'ghoi, seelhch'woi
Great Blue Heronaach'woo
Green Heronkwee'nteeltc("little Black-Crowned Night Heron")
Sandhill Cranedeelh
Ducks and Geese
Ducknaakee'itc("little one that floats around")duck & goose illustrations
Canada Goosedaa'yaa'nteeliichow("big ones that have wide mouths")
Mergansernaalh'ghii-lhgai("white duck")
Tealtc'aahaalyaantc("little one that eats frogs")
Wood Duckk'osoghchow, k'osowiichow("big one with blue/green neck")
Other Water Birds
Coot, Mudhentookaaliighitc("little one that swims up from under water")water bird illustrations
Coot, Mudhenkaahtcinyaantc("small goose kind of thing")
Game Birds
California Quaildishtc("little grouse/quail")game bird illustrations
Grousedishchow("big grouse/quail")
Grousech'isdiichow("big ch'isdii")
Mountain Quaildistcii'chow("big tcii' grouse/quail")
Birds of Prey
Hawks and Eagles
Bald Eagletisbilgai("white eagle")hawk & eagle illustrations
Cooper's Hawkch'sai'yaashtc("little hawk")
Eagle (Golden or Bald)tisbil
Marsh Hawk, Harrierts'eehch'ooyoojis
Red-tailed Hawkch'sai'
Sparrow Hawksee'eedintc
Vultures (Tc'intyaash, Ch'ooyoostcing)
Condortc'intyaashchow("big vulture/condor")vulture & condor illustrations
Turkey Vulturetc'indaakaayoostcing
Turkey Vulturetc'intkitseetcing
Turkey Vulture, Condorch'ooyoostcing("kind that pulls something")
Turkey Vulture, Condortc'intyaash
Crow and Raven (Daatcaang')
Crowdaatcaan'tc("little crow/raven")crow & raven illustrations
Ravendaatcaan'chow("big crow/raven")
Owls (Bischloo)
Barn Owlbischloolhgaitc("little white owl")owl illustrations
Barred Owlbisbintc
Great Horned Owlbischloo
Pigmy Owlchiibowitc
Saw-whet Owlchuubistcloo("chuu owl")
Screech Owlchiiliil
Small Birds (T'aa'kwl'iintc)
Doves and Pigeons
Mourning Dovekwiiyiintdove & pigeon illustrations
Pigeonbaanyoo, maanyoo
Acorn Woodpeckerch'laakiiwoodpecker illustrations
Flicker, Yellowhammerbintcbil("its nose a wedge")
Hairy Woodpeckerchils'oostcii
Lewis' Woodpeckerchin-ch'baagh
Lewis' Woodpeckerchin-nilhtcintc
Pileated Woodpeckerchin-ch'ghiichow
Pileated Woodpeckerchin-ch'baaghchow("big Lewis' woodpecker")
Red-breasted Sapsuckerbeet'ailhtciikchow("big one with the front of it's neck red")
Gray Jaych'isai'lhgai("white hawk/jay")jay illustrations
Scrub Jaych'isai'tcing, ch'ist'ai'tcing("hawk kind")
Steller's Jaych'isai'lhtcinchow("big black hawk/jay")
Steller's Jaych'ist'ai'tcinchow("big jay")
Bluebirdgot'yoo'itsthrush illustrations
Swainson's Thrushdjiidinggooyaantc("little one with stars at the place of the heart")--from speckles on breast
Varied Thrushchaalhnii
Other Small Birds
Barn Swallowk'oschoghoitc("little one with a big neck")small bird illustrations
HummingbirdTc'eeneesh("Thunder/God")--because hummingbird buzzes around people doctoring them
Junco, "Snow Bird"yaahsdaalootc("little one that ?? in snow")
Nuthatchchin-naaldaaltc, chuunaaldaaltc("little one that runs around trees")
Orioleshlee', shleeshlee'
Purple Finchsii'-biskiik("head its children")?
Brown Towheesoolchowtc'antc("little one that eats wild parsnip")
Spotted Towheenaagooltciik("one that has red eyes") ?
California Thrasherch'ilhsidii
California Thrasherch'ilhsidii-daa'neeschow("thrasher with a big long beak")
Warblerstc'ighiiyiits , iistc'ighiiyiits("little one that whistles")
Wren Titk'ai'ts'eehtc
Yellow-breasted Chatseelhtcindinii
Other Birds
"Big Red Mouth"daa'lhtciikchow("big red mouth")
K'ai'koslitc birdk'ai'koslitc
"Little Fog" birdyiist'oot'-yaash("little fog") ?
"Long Beard" (probably Turkey)daaghaa'neestc("little long beard")
Seebeech'isbaat bird (possibly a finch)seebeech'isbaat("one that flapped something (it's wings?) against a rock") ?
Seentaa'ghchow birdseentaa'ghchow
T'ooshook birdt'ooshook
"White Bird" (swan or possibly whooping crane)t'aa'kwl'iin-lhgai("white bird")
Rodents (Lhoong')
Squirrels (Lhoong')
Chipmunksils'intc, silts'intcsquirrel illustrations
Flying Squirrelsits'bilh-naalht'ai("one that flies around by means of skin")
Gray Squirreldaahtaitc
Ground Squirrelslis
Red Squirrel, Chikareegaashchowkw'it-kwiiyaaghitc("little one that runs along a redwood trunk")
Mice and Rats
Kangaroo Ratnaalht'on'tc("little one that jumps around")mouse & rat illustrations
Kangaroo Rattl'ohkaa-naalht'on'tc("little one that jumps around in the grassland")
Mouselhoon'tcgheeneestc("little long-eared rodent")
Woodrat, Packratlhoon'lhgai("white rodent")
Other Rodents
Beaverchin-ti'aalhtc("little one that chews wood")rodent illustrations
Gopherlhoong'-kaanaas("rodent that pops up from below")
Dogs and Relatives
Coyotech'siitcingcanid illustrations
Dog (native kind)naalhghii
red dognaalhghiitciik("red dog")
bob-tailed dognaalhghii chii-tcgholtc("dog with a little round tail")
small dognaalhghiitcii("little dog")
black dognaalhghiidilshing("blackish dog")
female dognaalhghiitc'eek("female dog")
puppy, young dognaalhghii-yaashtc("little young dog")
Foxlhtsoghing, lhsowing("blue one")
Weasels and Relatives
Badgermaing, maaying("the gray one")mustelid illustrations
Fishersaahchow("big fisher/mink")
Fishersiis-lhtcing("black otter")
Minksaahtc("little fisher/mink")
River Ottersiis
Sea Otterkaa ?
Spotted Skunktciitcgaitc(abbreviation from "little white skunk")
Striped Skunkslee'lhkishtc("little one with a raw anus")
Striped Skunkkoldjii
Weaselmaing, maaying("the gray one")
Bears (Noonii)
Bear (term used for both kinds)nooniibear illustrations
Black Beardoolii
black Black Bearnooniilhtcing("black bear")
blue/silver Black Bearnooniilhtsow("blue bear")
brown/cinnamon Black Beartoolee
white-footed Black Bearchinyaantc("little one that eats sticks/wood" ?)
white-footed yellow Black Bearkeelhgai("white foot")
Grizzly Bearch'ilhghee, ch'ilhghii, ch'ilhgheechow("(big) fighter/killer")
Grizzly Bearnoonii-lhtciik("red bear")
Grizzly Bearshash
Bobcatbittc("little cat")felid illustrations
House Cattoo-bittc("water? bobcat")
Mountain Lionbitchow("big cat")
Other Carnivores
Raccoonlaa'nees("long-hand")carnivore illustrations
Raccoonteehtaagh, teehtaaw("one among wet places")
Ringtailsii'-dilgaitc("little one with a whitish head")
Marine Mammals
Seals (Tboo'tc) and Sea Lions (Tyiits)
California Sea Liontyiitsseal & sea lion illustrations
Steller's Sea Liontitc'isdeel'("ones that haul out of the water")
Sea Lion teethch'idee'("something's horn")
Harbor Sealboo'tc
Northern Fur Sealtoontl'its'ding boo'tc("swift water place seal")
Whales and Porpoises
Orca, Killer Whalesee-toonai("rock fish")whale & porpoise illustrations
Porpoisenaat'ilhchow("big one that goes around")
balleine, "whale-bone"bintc-soolee'("its nose pithy stuff")
Deer and Relatives
Cowbaagaafrom Spanish "vaca"ungulate illustrations
milk, Cow's milkliidjiifrom Spanish "leche"
buckiintc'ee' naach'yiishchow
doebaang("its mother")
doebaanchow("big doe")
doeiintc'ee'-baang("deer's mother")
fawndilkitc, deelkitc("little spotted one")
yearlingbaantc("little doe")
spike buckdee'-soostc("little narrow horn")
spike buck (2-year old)dee'-soos("narrow horn")
4-point buckdeelhaang("many horns")
Horselhiin'chow("big dog")
Other Mammals
Batch'ilhbaat'etc("little one that flaps something")mammal illustrations
Bigfoot, Sasquatchchintaahnaastbaats("rolls? around in the forest")
Moleyai'ntaan', yaa'ntaan'
Rabbit, Cottontailsdaitc, sdaitcii("little one that sits")
Rabbit, Cottontailkoshyeeh-sdaitc("little one that sits in thorns/blackberries")
Marine Plants, Seaweed
Algae, Seaweed (general term)laatseaweed illustrations
Bull Kelpteekislee'
Kelp (type)silsiskwt'iing("one that has a silsis")
Purple Laver, Nori, Porphyra (edible)laat("seaweed")
Sea Palmchingkwt'iing("one that has a stick")
Surf Grasstl'olhtsow("blue/green grass")
Land Plants
Lower Plants, Algae and Fungi
Chanterelle Mushroomdintc'iik', dinsh'iik'("hot/spicy one")lower plant illustrations
Mushroom (large, flat)aatcwot
Mosstooghaa'("water hair")
Mossseeghaa'("stone hair")
Fern, Bracken Ferndaatcaang'k'aa'("crow's arrow") ?
Small Plants
Grasses (Tl'oh)
Bunch Grasstl'ohchow("big grass")grass illustrations
Corn, Maizemaayiishfrom Spanish maiz
Grass (general term)tl'oh
Ricebiidooseefrom Spanish arroz
Ricegoo("worm")--from similarity to maggots
tall Grasstl'ohnees("long/tall grass")
Clovers (Naakoong)
Red Clovernaakoontc("clover")clover illustrations
"Toolish" clovertoolish("what is put in water")?
White Clovert'aan'teel("wide/flat leaf")
Yellow Clover, Sour Clover (Trifolium fucatum)eelht'iing
Angelica (kind)soltc("little umbellifer")umbellifer illustrations
Angelica (kind)ghilk'otc'tcing("kind of sour one")
Cow Parsnipsolchow("big umbellifer")
Berry Plants
Blackberrykwosh, kosh("thorn")berry plant illustrations
Grapedaahtl'ool'("strap up above")
Grape juice, winedaahtl'ool'-uutoo'("grape's water")
Raspberrynoonaakliichow("big hook back") ?
Salal Berryt'aan'teel("wide/flat leaf")
Salmonberryt'aan'teel("wide/flat leaf")
Strawberry, Wild Strawberrydjii'tc, djii'itc
Root Crops (Ninyeehtaagh)
"Bear Root"t'aan'teechowroot crop illustrations
Brodiaea congestaseesiichow
Brodiaea grandiflora groupgontc
Wild Dandelion (Agoseris spp.)ts'oo'kwt'iing("one that has milk")
Lily (kind)kaschiing'
Lily (kind)ch'iyooyiikostgaitc ?
"Pine Cone"chinsii'tcing("kind of pine cone")
"Pointed Head" (kind of edible bulb)sii'tbiing("pointed/sharp head")
Potato, Irish Potatoninyeehtaagh("what is among underground")root crop illustrations
Triteleia laxawoo'lhaang("many teeth")
Triteleia laxaninyeehtaaghchow("big bulb")
Wild Onion, Onionbitlai'k'tc, bitlai'tc
Other Plants
Beaniihoolfrom Spanish "frijol"other plant illustrations
white Beaniihool-gai("white bean")
brown Beaniihool-tciik("red bean")
Beargrasstl'ohteelh("flat/wide grass")
"Caterpillar Plant"goo-kaal'ai'("caterpillar plant")
Cattailkolk'osbang("tule's mother")
Dogbane, Indian Hemp, "Wild Cotton"tnaa'
Irisch'ghaats'ee', ch'ghaats'ii'other plant illustrations
Milkweedch'siitcin-t'aanii("coyote's apron")--from fiber of stalk
Mountain Misery, "Bear Clover"shaasht'ang', shasht'aang'("bear leaf")
Poison Oakkeetc'iniis, keetc'ing'iit
Tarweedtl'ohdai("grass flower?")
Tobacco (modern kind, Nicotiana tabacum)lhit-taanaan("smoke drink")
Tobacco (old-fashioned kind, Nicotiana bigelowii)seedilniikother plant illustrations
Watermelontoobaanchow("big water edge")
Wild Rosekosh-daayee("thorn-flower")
?? Hupa nasdikneestcitc
Trees (Ching) and Bushes (Ts'ii')
Coniferous Trees and Shrubs
Bull Pine, "Digger Pine"nee'dilbai("grey ground")pine illustrations
Pine (kind)naadeelhtc("little sugar pine")
Ponderosa Pine, Yellow Pinediltciik("yellow/reddish one")
Sugar Pinenaadeelh, naadiil'("ones that hang down")--from the large cones
Sugar Pine sapnaadeelh-too'("sugar pine water")
Pine conechinsii'tc("little tree head")
Pine pitch; chewing gumdjeeh-ghi'aal("pitch/gum that one chews")
Pine root, Sedge root (for basketry)kai
Pine nut shells (worn on skirt fringe)naadilchow("big ones that hang down")
Other Conifers
Douglas Firtc'bee,tc'iibee, tc'uubeeconifer illustrations
Fir, White Firtc'iibeetcing("kind of Douglas Fir")
Hemlock or Fir ?tc'beetc("little Douglas fir")
Incense Cedartl'iilh
Redwoodgaashchow, gashchow("big yew")
Yewgaash, gash
Yewgaashtc("little yew")
Deciduous Trees and Shrubs
Oaks and Tanoak
Acornch'int'aangoak illustrations
Black Oaklhtaagh, lhtaaw
California White Oak, "Valley Oak"saakeenees, saaknees("long spoon")
Canyon Live Oakaanch'waichow("big live oak")--from larger acorns
Interior Live Oakaanch'waitc, aanch'oitc("small live oak")--from small acorns
Oregon White Oakchiitcaang
Lilacs and Coffeetree
Buckthorn, CoffeetreekontceetceeCeanothus & Rhamnus illustrations
Buckthorn, Coffeetreeshaashjii, shaashjee
Buckthorn, Coffeetreesaakolching
Deer Brush, Ceanothus integerrimustseek'ai', seek'ai'("stone hazel")
"Grease Leaf"t'aan'lhghii("greasy leaf")
Whitethorn, Ceanothus incanusnaalch'il("it tears along")--from the thorns
Whitethorn, Ceanothus incanuskwosh("thorn")
Berry Trees and Shrubs
Cherry, Chokecherryningkwosjeeberry tree & shrub illustrations
Cherry, Chokecherryningkwostiin("frost")--because it blooms so early
Elderberrychinsool("hollow/pithy wood")
Gooseberrykwosh, kosh("thorn")
Black Huckleberryshilhtc
Red Huckleberrysaaldeel'("ones that are put in the mouth")
Madrone berriesdist'eeh-k'oon'ee("madrone's roe/eggs")
Manzanitatnish, tinishberry tree & shrub illustrations
Manzanita berriestnish, tinish("manzanita")
Manzanita bushtnisht'ang', tnisht'aang'("manzanita leaf")
Manzanita cidertnishtoo'("manzanita's water")
Serviceberry, Juneberryk'iing'
Other Deciduous Trees and Shrubs
Alderk'ishdeciduous tree & shrub illustrations
Arrowwood, Philadelphus lewisiik'aa'kas("arrow stem")
Ashtc'aah-tc'il'iing("it is treated as a hat")
Buckeye, Horsechestnutlaashee', laashii'
Chinkapin, Chestnuttkoo'iishtc, tkoowiishtc
Chinkapin, Chestnutkoostce
Cottonwoodtl'ghischow, lh'ghischow, tc'ghischow
Hazelkaal'ai'("one that sprouts up")
Hazel withe (for basketry)k'ing'("withe")deciduous tree & shrub illustrations
Maple, Big-leaf Maplekansool
Mountain Mahoganychin-tcghee'dilbai("tree with gray ears")--from the odd-shaped leaves with light underside?
Pacific Dogwooddaalhgai("white up on a surface")--from the large, flat flowers
Pepperwoodan'tcing, aan'tcing
Smooth Dogwoodgosh("foam")--from the fluffy flower clusters

email to author: Sally Anderson